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Informative and an excellent book. Well written with lots of detail and examples

E. Collins

Practical Guide to SAP Internal Orders (CO-OM)

This SAP Controlling (CO) book walks readers through the fundamentals of internal orders in SAP ERP as cost objects, as well as the benefits of period settlement. Dive into master data configuration for creating orders types and status management and lear...



  • Preface
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Master Data
  • 3 Planning and Budgeting
  • 4 Daily Postings
  • 5 Period End Close
  • 6 Reporting
  • 7 Special Topics
  • A   The Author
  • B   Disclaimer

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Marjorie Wright






2.1 Master data

The object internal order is the master data. The internal order is created from an order type, which contains all the parameters of the object. It is important to select the appropriate order type when you are creating an internal order.

2.1.1 Create an internal order

There are two methods of creating an internal order, and both are found on the SAP Easy Access menu.

To create internal orders from the Order Manager:

Accounting • Controlling • Internal Orders • Master Data • Order Manager KO04


Figure 2.1: Use Order Manager KO04 to create an internal order

On the Order Manager screen, select the create CalloutCaption icon (see Figure 2.1).

Use the create internal order dialog CalloutCaption (enter or use the dropdown to select an order type, then select the enter icon).

The Create Internal Order: Master Data screen will be displayed on the right. On the left, the “find by or search” feature and the Personal Worklist will be displayed. To hide these sections, select the show/hide worklist icon Internal-Orders.

To create an internal order without Order Manager KO04:

Accounting • Controlling • Internal Orders • Master Data • Special Functions • Order • Create KO01


Figure 2.2: Create an internal order from KO01

On the Create Internal Order: Initial screen, enter or use the dropdown to select the controlling area CalloutCaption (see Figure 2.2).

On the Create Internal Order: Initial screen, enter or use the dropdown to select the order type CalloutCaption.

Select the Master Data icon Internal-Orders or the enter icon (you can also press “Enter” on your keyboard).

The Create Internal Order: Master Data screen will be displayed.

Order copy

If you want to copy from an existing internal order, enter that order number in the REFERENCE-ORDER field CalloutCaption (see Figure 2.2).

In Figure 2.3, we use order type 0400. This is an SAP standard delivered example of an order type. The order type determines everything about the order: whether there are default values CalloutCaption, the order number CalloutCaption, the screen layout CalloutCaption, any required fields, and so forth. Each organization can create order types with specific settings in support of its business requirements.


Figure 2.3: Initial data entry screen using order type 0400

We will explore each setting found in this example of an order.

Order header

  • Order number: This can be entered manually or determined by a number range assigned to the order type. If the field is greyed out, the next number in the range will be determined and assigned to the internal order when it’s being saved.
  • Order type: This field is greyed out and cannot be changed from here.
  • Description: This value is user defined, according to your business requirements.

Assignments tab

  • Controlling area: This field is greyed out, and it cannot be changed here. It was determined by the Controlling Area you set in transaction OKKS.
  • Company code: If it’s allowed by the order type, this field may be changed. However, the company code entered must be assigned to the Controlling Area displayed above.
  • Business area: If it’s allowed by the order type, this field may be changed.
  • Plant: If it’s allowed by the order type, this field may be changed. However, the plant must be assigned to the company code entered above.

All of the fields above are important when you’re posting to and from the order. Each value entered will become part of the posting and will be recorded at the document level.

The remaining fields on the Assignment tab are for informational purposes. You may use them in reporting, creating groups, creating selection variants, and to automatically assign settlement rules. These features will be discussed later.

Control Data tab

In the Status group we find:

  • System status: The current status is displayed. You may see arrow up and arrow down buttons to manually change the status. These are the standard SAP status indicators for internal orders:
    • REL released—With this status, all business transactions can be performed.
    • TECO technically complete—With this status, limited business transactions can be performed.
    • CLSD close—With this status, just a few activities can occur. CLSD prevents any posting to or from the order.

To see the list of possible business transactions for the current status of an order, select the allowed transactions icon. Additionally, from the System menu select Goto • Status and select the business processes tab. Here you can see the full description of possible business transactions and can sort the list.

If the order type contains a status profile, you may also see a user status in addition to the system status. This could provide more control than the three statuses listed here.

In the Control data group we find:

  • Currency: The system proposes the Company Code currency. If allowed by the order type, this field may be changed.
  • Statistical order: If selected, the order will be a statistical cost object. In the Special Topics chapter (Chapter 7), we will review the requirements.
  • Plan integrated order: If selected, the order will be integrated with Cost Center and Profit Center Planning. In Planning and Budgeting (Chapter 3), we will deep-dive on these features.
  • Revenue postings: If selected, the order can receive postings on revenue cost elements. In the Special Topics chapter (Chapter 7), we will review the requirements.
  • Commitment update: If selected, the order can display purchase commitments. See the Daily Postings chapter (Chapter 4) for details.
  • Actual posted Cost Center: Use only if the statistical indicator is selected, to specify the true cost center for posting.

Period End Close tab

These settings will be discussed in Period End Close (Chapter 5).

General Data tab   

In General Data we find

  • Applicant, Telephone, Department, etc.

These fields are for information purposes only. You may use them in collective maintenance or as selection variants. The field descriptions may be modified as part of system configuration.

Investments tab

These fields support SAP’s Investment Management business processes, and are outside the scope of this text.

Internal-Orders Now that we have an understanding of internal orders’ master record fields and their use, let’s return to our Business Process Example. An order type has been created in the SAP Customizing menu to meet our requirements.

Notice in Figure 2.4 the appearance of the master record compared to its appearance in the example in Figure 2.3.


Figure 2.4: Initial data entry screen for order type ZIO1

In Figure 2.4 we see no default description CalloutCaption and fewer tabs CalloutCaption. There is also less data entered by default CalloutCaption.

Each order type we can select at the time of master data creation can have quite different parameters, as evidenced by this simple example.

For our example, in Figure 2.5 you can see I have entered a description and the relevant values for company code, business area, and profit center on the Main Info tab.


Figure 2.5: Main Info tab of our business process example order

Order currency

The currency for an order will default from the company code entered.

In Figure 2.6 the order status has been set to “released” by using the up/down indicators CalloutCaption.

To see all allowed business transactions for the current order status, select the Allowed Transactions pushbutton CalloutCaption shown in Figure 2.6.

Display order status

An alternative method of displaying order status: From the system menu, select Go To, Status. Navigate to the Business Process tab to see the green or red light for each type of transaction.


Figure 2.6: Order status indicators

Order release

Orders must be released in order to receive postings.

From Figure 2.7, also note that on the Other Info tab in the control data group, this order has commitments active and there is no selection for Statistical.


Figure 2.7: Control data

For now, these basic settings are enough to proceed with using the internal order. Later, we will add the settlement rule we need for Period End Close.

Upon saving the order, the next available number in the number range is assigned. This number displayed in Figure 2.8 becomes the master record identifier for our order. Going forward, postings will be made to this master record number.


Figure 2.8: Order number assigned at saving

2.1.2 Maintain an internal order

Just as with order creation, there are two transactions in the menu that maintain orders individually. These are helpful when the changes are “one offs.” Later, we will review mass (collective) maintenance.

If you are using Order Manager KO04, select the order to be maintained and use the change Internal-Orders pushbutton to make changes, or the display Internal-Orders pushbutton to display an order.

As seen in Figure 2.9, the Order Manager also provides a “copy as” feature CalloutCaption and a “Find by” search section CalloutCaption, as well as your worklist CalloutCaption of recently accessed orders.


Figure 2.9: Order Manager features

If you are not using Order Manager KO04, you can use the following transactions in the menu:

Accounting • Controlling • Internal Orders • Master Data • Special Functions • Order • change KO02

Accounting • Controlling • Internal Orders • Master Data • Special Functions • Order • display KO03

2.1.3 Order Groups

Since internal orders do not utilize a standard hierarchy, and since the “number” of the master record is simply the next number in the assigned number range, it can be challenging to group like orders together.

Creating order groups is an especially helpful aid in the planning, reporting, allocation, and collective maintenance of orders.

To manually create an order group:

Accounting • Controlling • Internal Orders • Master Data • Order group • create KOH1

In the create order group: initial screen, enter a key for the group.

Group key

This can be up to ten alphanumeric characters with a suffix of up to four more, separated by a period, e.g., 1234567891.abc1

Select the Hierarchy pushbutton, or press “Enter”.

In the create order group: structure screen, enter a description.

Use the various icons to insert order numbers in the group or to build a hierarchical group structure.

Press “Enter” to validate the order numbers you have entered. The descriptions of the orders will then be displayed as seen in Figure 2.10. Save your group when it’s complete.


Figure 2.10: Create order group

A caution on entering order numbers

Entering order numbers horizontally indicates a range of orders.

Validation of order numbers

There is no validation that orders exist in the system. If you enter an order number that either has not been created or is in error, its description will read “no valid master.” However, you will be able to save the group.

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