When a rate is defined, it usually has multiple dimensions or parameters to determine that rate. Each scale is a dimension within a rate table.
What are scales?
Let us say, as per the contract with your carrier, that the rate you pay them is based on the origin postal code, destination postal code and weight. This means that you need three dimensions/scales: origin postal code, destination postal code and gross weight.
Scale maintenance is one of the steps in the charge management master data setup process and is integrated with agreements, calculation sheets, and rate tables.
Scales can be created separately, as shown in this section, and referenced into a rate table during rate table creation, or can be created within a rate table. If created as separate master data, you can use the same scale as a reference on multiple rate tables, which saves time. This is because every time you create a scale within a rate table, you need to configure different scale items in them. The process for creating a scale within a rate table is explained Section 2.3.
To create scales, follow menu path Master Data • Charge Management and Service Product Catalog • Scales • Create Scale. You can also use the Overview Charge Management Master Data personal object worklist (POWL).
When creating scales, the system prompts you to enter a scale template on the initial screen. Enter this, if available, otherwise click Continue to create the scale without reference to the template. Scale templates are discussed in detail in Section 2.2.4.
2.2.1 General data
The General Data tab contains general information about scales—for example, the Scale Unit Of Measure and the Scale Base—which defines how the system interprets the scale values during calculation (see Figure 2.6).
Figure 2.6: General Data tab for scales
In the Scale field, scales can either be named externally or numbered internally. If left blank, the system will auto-populate an internal number.
In order to generate an internal number, make sure a number range has been created for scales under IMG menu path Transportation Management • Basic Functions • Charge Calculation • Basic Settings • Number Range Intervals • Define Number Range Intervals for Scales.
Once created, the number range needs to be assigned under IMG menu path Transportation Management • Basic Functions • Charge Calculation • Basic Settings • Number Range Intervals • Assign No. Ranges to Calc. Sheets, Rate Tables, & Scales.
Some of the key fields on the General Data tab are:
- Scale Base—this forms the foundation for a scale. In this field, you define the kind of parameter that is relevant—whether it is a numerical value, and whether unit of measure, currency and rounding are relevant. To configure scale bases, follow IMG path Transportation Management • Basic Functions • Charge Calculation • Data Source Binding • Define Scale Bases. Note that SAP provides numerous scale bases, but if you require additional custom scale bases, they need to be configured.
- Scale Type—these are rules about how dimensions need to be measured, such as greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (), and equal to (=).
As an example, weight dimension is usually greater than or equal to (>=), or less than or equal to (), but the location can only be equal to (=).
- Scale Unit of Measure—depending on the scale base used, this field is a conditional requirement. For example, for weight, a unit of measure is required and is updated with kg, lb. etc. For location, postal code, etc., this field is not required because the unit of measure is irrelevant.
- Scale Currency—depending on the scale base used, this field is a conditional requirement. For example, if the scale base represents amounts such as goods value, customs value etc., then you need to also update the currency required. For other scale bases that are not amounts, and for which currency is not relevant, this field is hidden.
- Rounding Profile—in the context of scales, this is generally used for rounding the values of the dimension.
Rounding profile within a scale
If a scale is for weight, you can round the weight by using a rounding profile within a scale for rate calculation purposes.
2.2.2 Item data
The Items tab contains the Scale Value and the Calculation Type. Scale values are based on the rate structure for this specific dimension. For example, if you need to calculate charges based on the weight range, then the weight scale might look like that shown in Figure 2.7.
Figure 2.7: Item data on scale
With the Calculation Type, you can specify a calculation type for a scale base, which affects how the system calculates charges with the scale. The available calculation types are Absolute and Relative.
More details on when to use the relative calculation type and when to use absolute calculation type are covered in more detail in Section 2.3.
2.2.3 Change documents
You can view all changes made to a scale on the Change Documents tab. The changes are listed by date and time. To view the details of the changes at header level, select the relevant row in the Transactions screen area. To view them at field level, select the relevant row in the Record Level Changes screen area. You must refresh the scale to view recently saved changes.
2.2.4 Scale template
Scales can be created with reference to a scale template. There are two type of scale template available: configuration scale templates and master data scale templates.
Configuration scale templates
Configuration scale templates are used when you mostly create specific types of scales, and instead of manually creating the scale every time, you can use a template. Using a template brings all the values into both the header and item level of the scale.
To configure scale templates, follow IMG menu path Transportation Management • Basic Functions • Charge Calculation • Basic Settings • Templates • Define Scale Templates.
The Scale Template field is used for the scale’s external name. All other fields have been previously explained. You also need to set up the item scale details by double-clicking on Define Scale Template Item after selecting the relevant scale template. Set up the scale items, the quantity fields, and whatever other fields are relevant for your scenario.
Once the scale template is configured and saved, you will be able to move this configuration over to your quality, staging and production systems and use the same template in all environments.
Configuring scale templates
Note that although all fields on the scale template and the scale template items are open for configuration, only the relevant fields need to be set up. You can create a scale manually and identify which fields are relevant, and replicate the same into the scale configuration template.
Master data scale template
Unlike the configuration scale template, the master data scale template is local and is therefore easy to set up. Although you cannot move the master data scale template over, because the master data generally looks different in different environments, some customers and consultants prefer this approach over the configuration scale template.
Follow NWBC/Fiori (NetWeaver Business Client) menu path Master Data • Charge Management and Service Product Catalogs • Scale Templates to create, edit, or display master data scale templates. Scale template creation looks almost the same as a scale creation. Once created, you can use this scale template as a reference in the new scale creation, as illustrated in Figure 2.8.
Figure 2.8: Create scale from scale template
Creating a master data scale template—with a reference
Note that you can also create a master data scale template with reference to a customizing scale template.
NWBC and Fiori UI
SAP TM 9.6 and other business suite applications use the NWBC user interface (UI). SAP S/4 HANA TM uses the Fiori UI. Note that with each release of SAP there could be minor difference in the menu path. You can always use the search button in both Fiori and NWBC screens to find a transaction.
Alle Inhalte. Mehr Informationen. Jetzt entdecken.
et.training - Ihre Lernplattform für SAP-Software
- Zugriff auf alle Lerninhalte1
- Regelmäßige Neuerscheinungen
- Intelligenter Suchalgorithmus
- Innovatives Leseerlebnis
- Maßgeschneidere Lernpfade
- Zertifikate & QA-Tests2
1 Sie erhalten Zugriff auf alle Lerninhalte. Online-Trainings, Zertifikate sind NICHT Teil der Flatrate.
2 Weitere Informationen auf Anfrage.