2.1.2 Shortened profit and loss statement structure for our value flow in FI
In an SAP system, you create a financial statement structure using a financial statement schema. You define this in Customizing via the following menu path: SPRO • Financial Accounting (New) • General Ledger Accounting • Master Data • G/L Accounts • Financial Statement Structures. Alternatively, you can use this Fiori app:
We will use the financial statement structure we have already created as a prerequisite (not described in this book), ZHGE.
For our value flow, we decided on a shortened representation of the profit and loss statement (P&L) to allow better presentation of the analysis in the rest of the book (see Figure 2.3).
Figure 2.3: Shortened P&L structure
Here, CoS stands for cost of sales.
In S/4HANA, the goods issue (delivery of goods to the customer) is split into the individual components of the adjusted standard cost estimate—that is, the goods issue is no longer posted with only the total value; the individual cost components are transferred to individual accounts in FI as part of the goods issue posting.
The production variances are also no longer transferred to FI with only the total amount of the variance as part of the settlement of the production order; the individual variance categories are instead posted to separate accounts in FI.
This detailed breakdown of the costs is new in S/4HANA. It was not possible in SAP ERP. The associated processes and Customizing settings are described in the following chapters (goods issue: see Section 5.2.2; production variance: see Section 4.3.2).
As we progress through the process, we will fill this shortened P&L structure with values.
2.1.3 Gross profit structure for our value flow (costing-based CO-PA)
We will also use a shortened gross profit structure to describe our value flow, as shown in Figure 2.4.
Figure 2.4: Gross profit structure—costing-based CO-PA
You define the gross profit structure in the reporting for CO-PA. In the costing-based form of CO-PA, the structure is represented using value fields. Value fields and characteristics are the master data maintained in CO-PA. In CO-PA reporting, the lines in the gross profit structure are defined as value fields (i.e., fields that take values) or totals of value fields, with subtotals being created as formulas.
2.1.4 Gross profit structure for our value flow (account-based CO-PA)
In contrast to costing-based CO-PA, the account-based form is based not on value fields but on FI accounts. Thus, in SAP ERP, it was not possible in account-based CO-PA, for example, to break the cost of sales down into its individual components, present the price differences in individual categories, or perform cost center assessments. These disadvantages no longer exist under S/4HANA, which means that you can perform characteristic-based evaluations in account-based CO-PA with this information.
To present this changed value flow in account-based CO-PA, we have again defined a shortened gross profit structure, as shown in Figure 2.5.
Figure 2.5: Gross profit structure—account-based CO-PA
You define the gross profit structure in the reporting of the SAP module CO-PA. In the account-based form of CO-PA, the structure is represented using accounts. The master data managed in CO-PA is used as characteristics. The lines of the gross profit structure are defined as accounts or account totals, and subtotals are created as formulas in CO-PA reporting.
2.1.5 Comparing the profit and loss statement and the gross profit structure
At the end of each chapter that describes posting transactions or procedures required to reconcile FI and CO, you will find an overview that compares the structures described in Sections 2.1.2, 2.1.3, and 2.1.4 and highlights the procedures explained in the respective chapter.
Figure 2.6 shows the empty overview, while Figure 2.7 shows the same comparison of the profit and loss and gross profit structures but including all accounts that we will post to in the course of our process description.
Figure 2.6: Comparison of the P&L and gross profit structures
Figure 2.7: Overview of FI/CO/CO-PA, including accounts
In S/4HANA, FI and CO are merged. Cost elements are no longer created separately in CO; instead, they are created via the creation of G/L accounts in FI. Each account has a special G/L account type and a cost element type dependent on that G/L account type. Accordingly, the former secondary cost elements are also created as FI accounts.
Figure 2.8 explains the meaning of the accounts used in this book.
Figure 2.8: Account/cost element overview
At the start of our comparison of the P&L with the gross profit structure, we assume that initial expense postings have taken place in the period. These P&L accounts were created with G/L account type Primary Costs or Revenue and cost element category 1 (primary cost element), which means that they are also valid for CO. Therefore, they require a controlling-relevant account assignment—we have used a cost center in each case for this purpose. The following expense postings form the basis for this account assignment:
- Wages Production (account 61103000) to cost center KS1 in the amount of EUR 1500
- Production management salaries (Salary Prod. Mgt.) (account 61100000) to cost center KS4 in the amount of EUR 1000
- Wages Purchasing (account 61103000) to cost center KS3 in the amount of EUR 1000
Figure 2.9 shows the resulting FI/CO/CO-PA overview at the start of our example.
Figure 2.9: Initial FI/CO/CO-PA overview
Without the logistical sales and production process even having begun, we have already posted expenses in the amount of EUR 3500. Let us hope that during the course of our description of the value flow, we post some positive transactions so that we do not have to report a deficit of EUR 3500 at the end of the period.
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